How And What
The Hybrid Propulsion is configured into three technologies often identified with the words: Series, Parallel and combined.
Referring as an example to the case of the endothermic engine (Otto, Diesel ..) and of the Electric Machine, it defined Hybrid in Series or Serial the technical solution that sees the kinetic power of the combustion engine to drive the electric current generator which powers in turn an electric motor that re-converts back the electric power into kinetic, given this to the traction wheels.
In summary, the energy/power cycle in relation to the source/transformation machine is: chemical (fuel in the tank) → thermal and mechanical (in the endothermic motor) → electricity (in the operating machine generator of electric current) → mechanical (in the electric motor), with the addition of a further electric machine said charge accumulator in function as flywheel.
We are therefore in the presence, compared to an endothermic pure powertrain, of the further two cycles of energy transformation, one operator and the other motor as well as of some transformations in the nature of the electric type. This is, why the endothermic power is not directly given to the drive wheels by paying therefore the use of the more machines and their resulting losses, characteristics of each energy transformation, against the benefit of having an electric propulsion, by driving the combustion engine to work in his well-known point of maximum efficiency.
Otherwise, we speak of Parallel Hybrid, when both machines combustion and electrical, supply their powers to the drive wheels, but conferring their previously each one separately to a mechanical node where the power coupling is done. Also in this case there is the presence of the accumulator charging with the function of flywheel similar but not equal to the previous one.
The constructions in this case can be also different, since it can be convenient to exploit the peculiarities of the electric machine to have no need – in the case of medium and high power – of the groups Clutch and Gearbox, for which, the integration of Energies/ Powers can be positioned before or after these groups so as before or after an axle.
In the four wheelers of class M1 (cars) therefore, it may be that the hybrid integration is carried out exploiting the friction between tires and the road surface, obtaining with this solution two independent traction even regarding at the energy source, albeit necessarily handled electronically.
Sure, an Hybrid Powertrain, namely the integration of the Powers of several sources, requires the equality of at least one of the torque and speed parameters typical of the different contributions, although one may prevail over the other, by characterizing the hybrid solution in this sense.
Combined Hybrid instead, is the technical solution able to configure together the previous two, and thus presents an electrical node and an mechanical node, and then at least two electric machines, one motor and one generator, and another combustion engine.
Even in this case, as in the previous, the traction can be purely electric or pure endothermic or the combination of the two; the electric accumulator with the function of the flywheel is ever present together with a management system even more sophisticated and complex.
Minimal Powertrain SA has in start-up phase the implementation of an intuition exciting subject of the patent application.
This Electric Integrator, capable to produce an Hybrid of any number of the energy sources irrespective of their nature, is disarming for its absolute simplicity and for the its possibility to guarantee the exact sum of their powers at constant torque, which is the typical goal of the vehicular propulsion .
Specifically in the case of Hybrid between Electric Energy and Human Energy, there is the huge problem of integrating Powers which by their nature present ranges of Speed and Couples entirely different.
A difficult problem to solve, which we think we have found a technical solution that can be also applied to any type of vehicle, even to a small four-wheelers with a hybrid minimalpowertrain made by Muscular energy and another Renewable energy.