LEGAL AND TECHNICAL REGULATIONS

How and What

The world is big and diverse are the habits and customs of its inhabitants.

Considering the economies that configured themselves single-level in relation to the market but also those representative of States-Nations organized in Unions, Community or Confederations, there are still individualities that prevent till now definitions, technical standards and legal laws unique to which people can refer, and even if the unification process in some cases is in progress, we can say that the commercial exchange overtakes the organization of common references, creating serious problems for confusion, delays and increased costs.

For this a reference to the How and What in this logic is right.

The world is big and diverse are the habits and customs of its inhabitants.

Considering the economies that configured themselves single-level in relation to the market but also those representative of States-Nations organized in Unions, Community or Confederations, there are still individualities that prevent till now definitions, technical standards and legal laws unique to which people can refer, and even if the unification process in some cases is in progress, we can say that the commercial exchange overtakes the organization of common references, creating serious problems for confusion, delays and increased costs.

For this a reference to the How and What in this logic is right.

The Art. 50 (Velocipedi) of the Legislative Decree of April 30, 1992, n. 285 – New Italian Highway Code – as amended by the Law of February 3, 2003, n. 14 – reads as follows:

  1. The velocipedi are vehicles with two wheels or more wheels operated exclusively by muscular propulsion, by means of pedals or similar devices, managed by persons who are located on the vehicle; shall also considered velocipede the bicycles with pedal assistance, of which are equipped with an auxiliary electric motor having a maximum continuous rated power of 0.25 kW and the powering progressively reduced and finally cut off, when the vehicle reaches 25 km / h, or sooner, if the cyclist stop pedaling.

2. Velocipedi can not exceed 1.30 m wide, 3 m long and 2.20 m in height.

The Directive 2002/24/EC of  March 18, 2002 on “type-approval of motor vehicles with two or three wheels (four)” has been transposed by all member states of the European Union for which, it is given as an example, what is for the afore mentioned new Italian CdS to the:

TITLE III – OF VEHICLES. Chapter I – VEHICLES IN GENERAL Art. 47. Classification of vehicles.

1 The vehicles are classified, for the purposes of this Code, as follows:

a) vehicles in arms; b) animal-drawn vehicles; c) velocipedi; d) sledges; e) mopeds; f) motor vehicles; g) vehicles; h) trolleybuses; i) trailers; l) agricultural machinery; m) operative machines; n) vehicles with atypical features.

2 Motor vehicles and their trailers, referred to in paragraph 1, letter e), f), g), h), i) and n) are also classified as follows according to the international categories:

a)

– category L1e: two-wheeled vehicles having the displacement of the engine (if it comes to combustion engine) not exceeding 50 cc and a maximum speed of construction (whatever the propulsion system) does not exceed 45 km/h;

– category L2e: three-wheeled vehicles having the displacement of the engine(if it comes to combustion engine) not exceeding 50 cc and a maximum speed of construction (whatever the propulsion system) does not exceed 45 km/h;

– category L3e: two-wheeled vehicles having the displacement of the engine (if it comes to combustion engine) exceeds 50 cc or whose maximum design speed (whatever the propulsion system) exceeds 45 km/h;

– category L4e: three-wheeled vehicles asymmetric with respect to the longitudinal axis, having the displacement of the engine (if it comes to conbustion engine) exceeds 50 cc or whose maximum design speed (whatever the propulsion system) exceeds 45 km/h (motorcycles with side-car);

– category L5e: three-wheeled vehicles symmetrical with respect to the longitudinal middle axis, the displacement of the engine (if it comes to combustion engine) exceeds 50 cc or whose maximum design speed (whatever the propulsion system) exceeds 45 km/h;

– category L6e: light four, whose unladen mass is less or equal to 350 kg, not including the mass of batteries for electric vehicles, whose speed maximum design is less or equal to 45 km/h and whose engine displacement is less or equal to 50 cc for spark-ignition engines; or whose maximum net power is less or equal to 4 kW for the other combustion engines; or whose maximum continuous rated power is less or equal to 4 kW electric motors. These vehicles shall fulfill the technical requirements applicable to three-wheel mopeds of category L2e, unless otherwise provided by specific Community provisions;

– category L7e: the quadricycles, other than those referred to in category L6e, whose unladen mass is less or equal to 400 kg (550 kg for vehicles intended for carrying goods), not including the mass of batteries for vehicles electrical, and whose maximum net power of the engine is less or equal to 15 kW. These vehicles are considered to be motor tricycles and shall fulfill the technical requirements applicable to motor tricycles of category L5e unless otherwise provided by specific Community provisions;

b)

– category M: Motor vehicles for the transport of persons with at least four wheels;

– category M1: Vehicles used for the carriage of passengers, comprising a maximum of eight seats in addition to the driver’s seat;

– category M2: Vehicles used for the carriage of passengers, comprising more than eight seats in addition to the driver’s seat and a maximum mass not exceeding 5 T;

– category M3: Vehicles used for the carriage of passengers, comprising more than eight seats in addition to the driver’s seat and a maximum mass exceeding 5 T;

c)

– category N: motor vehicles for the carriage of goods and having at least four wheels;

– category N1: Vehicles used for the carriage of goods and having a maximum mass not exceeding 3,5 T;

– category N2: Vehicles used for the carriage of goods and having a maximum mass exceeding 3.5 T but not exceeding 12 T;

– category N3: Vehicles used for the carriage of goods and having a maximum mass exceeding 12 T;

d)

– category O: trailers (including semi-trailers);

– category O1: Trailers with a maximum mass not exceeding 0.75 T;

– category O2: Trailers with a maximum mass exceeding 0,75 T but not exceeding 3.5 T;

– category O3: Trailers with a maximum mass exceeding 3.5 T but not exceeding 10 T;

– category O4: Trailers with a maximum mass exceeding 10 T.

As can be seen, therefore, in motor vehicles not within the category c) “velocipedi” (of which not only bicycles are part), even if assisted by an electric motor within the limits of the provisions of the Community directive, Article 1 point h) “assisted bicycles, equipped with an auxiliary electric motor having a maximum continuous rated power of 0.25 kW, of which the output is progressively reduced and finally cut off as the vehicle reaches 25 km / h, or sooner, if the cyclist stops pedaling” , which expressly exclude them together to “vehicles with a maximum design speed not exceeding 6 km / h” referred to in point a).

In relation to the Directive 2002/24 / EC must be remembered also following Note:

“The particular directives lay down specific requirements for the “low-performance mopeds”, ie mopeds with pedals, with an auxiliary engine power less or equal to 1 kW and a maximum design speed not exceeding 25 km / h. These specific focus will be referred to those elements and features referred to in sections 18, 19, 29, 32, 33, 34, 41, 43 and 46 of this Annex.”

The vehicles with pedal assistance are also subject to the following standards.

Standard EN 15194 of 2009: EPAC – Electrically Pedal Assisted Cycle.

Introduces a new standard to harmonize the construction of the electrical component of the pedal assisted vehicle in the European Community. Not transposed by many states also requires the maximum limit of 48V for the battery.

Standard EN 14764: City and trekking bicycles applies to the mechanical components.

Directive 2006/42/EC: regards the machines in general.

2004/108/EC relating to electromagnetic compatibility.

Directive 2006/66/EC on batteries and accumulators and waste batteries and accumulators must also be respected.

One is tempted to say that if a vehicle similar to the bicycle, had it not regarded as a spaceship, and more precisely that if there were not so many lobbies, you could read much less and will probably do even better.

 More simplicity and less redundancy in fact, as has historically been without problems, certainly not compromise the safety of the user that at the end is always responsibility of the manufacturer, and it certainly would save everyone time and money, by promoting competitiveness and development opportunities also of small business.

Is a nonsense and uneconomic to the nth power standardize the hair and to proliferate in laws legalizing confusion producing immobility, in appearance to preach the good and do the bad favoring always even more big vehicles that if you do not have 100 KW are considered nothing, in a perspective legislative which imposes limits ever closer to the speed and emissions allowed and in a context of the mobility which while continuing to deface the environment, is always lacking in space and road, and just to end up, in a world characterized of an economic equilibrium increasingly difficult and uncertain.

And unfortunately … the result of so many opulent folly, it is now visible to many.

 We of Powertrain Minimal SA, fearlessly denounce this immense lack of common sense and rationality together with the ambiguity created on purpose to hide the evidence because it is our creed, the Why that made us becomes the fans in this field.

The bicycles have a historical tradition that has never hurt anyone, instead is the desire of the overwhelming power of which we are ill which may damage the rider, and the vehicle still now legally equivalent can actually configure the right solution for the short range, as long as laws and heavy taxes do not jeopardize this great economic opportunity.

 So, let us spread these Why, so that this can’t happen, because there is no exception to justify restrictive changes to the status quo that allows you to touch the tips of 25 Km/h assisted by an electric motor that has one-sixth of the hair dryer’s power.

So it is in fact biomechanically already possible from ever for a healthy body, indeed capable of much higher performance if well trained.

Perhaps that the momentum of a vehicle of mass 30 kg or 350 kg can be more dangerous than a car of 1000 kg that we can not understand how can go up to 30 km/h for not taking the fines?

Rather than to proliferate in the need of approvals and consequent cost, follow-up expense included, it would been better to harmonized at 30 Km / h the speed limit for vehicles with pedal assistance which simultaneously eliminating the roof of 250 W, which limits absurdly the agility to the disadvantage the flow of traffic and the use uphill, thus completing intelligently what that 2002 was and remains only a Note.

It is not that there is too little economic incentive to promote minimal power?

Could be the logical reason.

To sum.

In case that maximum continuous rated power is limited to 250 W and the powering configures an hybrid electric-muscle with maximum “assisted” speed 25 Km/h in the absence of the throttle device, the vehicle will be allowed to circulate on public road in accordance with the only limits imposed on a bicycle.

The terms: PAS (Pedal Assist System or Pedal Assitance Service), EPAC (Electric Power Assisted Cycles), Pedelec (Pedal Electric Cycle or Pedal Electric) in this case are appropriate.

The cycles with pedal assistance or pure electric, with an electric motor having power greater than the previous, or that give assistance to pedaling beyond 25 km/h, or with designed construction speed exceeding 25 km/h, are classified as mopeds traditional and must be approved as such; this brings in all EEC member states the possibility to have the accelerator device, the mandatory use of helmet, the obligation of insurance, a limit of age to ride, and in some cases the need of a licence guide minimal type and of the vehicle’s identification device.

For the European circulation also, configurable also the omologation as motorcycle as well as moped, to the design speed is not place any limit: in this case, the terms electric bicycle, tricycle or quadricycle electric or hybrid light or heavy are correct.

Extending the horizon to the world, it must be said that the rules are not identical and the harmonization process under way in international fora dedicated, is becoming uncertain.

In the United States, for example, the similar legislation for the electrically assisted bicycles imposes limits on maximum speed and power for their E-Bikes of 20 mph (32 km/h) and 750 Watt certainly more consistent, and even higher speed if reached in hybrid mode with the help of muscular power; also enables also the use of the accelerator.

 This reality leads to other classifications with different names and related acronyms: all these vehicles will still fall in the category of Light Vehicles normally of mass less than 350 kg (LEV → Light Electric Vehicle, HLV → Light Hybrid Electric Vehicle: PHLEV → Light Plug in Hybrid Electric Vehicle).