NCM and LFP

New Cell's and Chemistries and Formats

Intellectual Property: Patent of invention
Status: in production
Market Availability: after presentation to the 2014
Padua Expobici
Business Opportunity: Minimal Powertrain AG
Data, Drawings and Pictures: Available

 
New Cell's and Chemistries and Formats

Intellectual Property: not applicable
Status: in Production
Market Availability: 2015
Business Opportunity: Minimal Powertrain AG
Data, Drawings and Pictures: available

 
New Cell's and Chemistries and Formats

NEW CELL’S CHEMISTRIES AND FORMATS

How And What

The hybrid electric powertrain or pure electric, needs in addition to the eventual tank of fuel (petrol, diesel, LPG, LNG …), of a container for the energy source of electrical nature.

Technically, it is called “accumulator of electric charge” or more commonly “battery”, although this term without the adjective “rechargeable” means those components that consumed the energy should be considered to lose because they can’t be refilled.

The increasing trend of energy consumption in the related aspects of the possible exhaustion of sources and of the pollution consequent to their specific use, has increased over the years, the socio-economic interest for the alternative and possibly renewable energies, of which we need to reduce the exploitation of traditional fossil fuels, to be considered non-renewable in nature for several reasons, including the enormous time of reconstitution.

The interest as known produces research, and searching technologies more or less industrializable so available products on the market: in the case of electricity it must be said that although there exists in nature, it is not in that state neither exploitable nor storable and then must be produced by transformation of others paying their cycle efficiency always less than one.

It can not therefore to this day, a priori define renewable or clean or zero emissions in relation to the powertrain that uses, except a special energy complessive cycles.

The new types of batteries, however, are already now capable of rediscovering the advantages of electric traction especially in relation to the minimal powers then to the light vehicles; the persistent inadequacy in relation to the pure electric for an generalized automotive still limits its opportunity to the short and medium range.

Outlook for rechargeable batteries to the automotive related

Year 2014 2018 2020 dal 2022
Chemistries Usuals NiCoMn Advances NiCoMn Innovative Li-on New Chemistries
Energy Density 130 Wh/Kg 130 Wh/Kg 250 Wh/Kg > 300 Wh/Kg

Project Autonomies electric automotive (EV)/Plug in Hybrid Electric (PHEV)

Chemistries NCM – Grafite News NCM Advances NCM Li-Air Cells
Autonomy 160/30 Km 240/50 Km 300/60 Km > 300 Km

Is the parameter “energy density” that makes completly obvious this statement: objectively be assumed equal to 140 Wh / kg for modern chemical lithium ion and 12,000 Wh / kg for the gasoline fuel, still shows a differential unbridgeable , for about 80 times in favor of traditional chemical potential.

This enormous technological inferiority to store the electrical energy, would require equipping the pure electric vehicle with a tank 80 times heavier than the corresponding endothermic to ensure equal energy reserve: more refined calculations, valid assuming a different technology production of electricity compared to the present and further advances in rechargeable batteries, are desirable but not realistic.

At the volumetric level, the penalty in respect of the petrol drops to approximately 20 times.

On the other hand, the electric motor has in its nature characteristic curves which best meet the typical requirements of the endothermic one, so even higher efficiency, zero consumption when the vehicle is stopped, the possibility of partial recovery of the kinetic energy, reduction of components of the powertrain, the absence of polluting emissions from the vehicle and then – if it were possible to get electricity in a non-polluting way – almost neutral impact on the environment.

Image

Cylinder Cell Format 18650

For the modern high performance electric traction, the traditional lead-acid batteries in liquid solution or gel, are now widely replaced by those obtained by assembling rechargeable batteries: the most currently used are usually called cell Lithium-Ion (Lithium-Ion / Li ion cells).

These new technologies have almost quadrupled in terms of mass the energy density, paying initially the almost equivalent increasing in terms of cost, however subject to a downward trend thanks to the rapid growing use.

Image

Diametro 18-18,4 mm  Altezza 65 mm

The cells have different chemistries, different performance and are available in various formats, presenting a greater common delicacy in terms of the use and management than previous ones, certainly more reliable and with greater flexibility.

Given the cycles of life and the typical mileage vehicles, Minimal Powertrain AG has chosen to use the chemical Li-Ion Li (NiCoMn)O2, acronym NCM (nickel manganese cobalt) for the energy reserves of up to 1000 Wh and chemistry LiFePO4 acronym LFP (lithium iron phosphate) to higher values.

Image