High Quality Components for Complete Powertrain
TRANSDUCER, MONITORS AND TRANSPONDER
How And What
Electronics and Telecommunications, represent the areas in which there has been much engagement over the last few years to make innovative vehicles, equipping them with accessories that turn into the acquirer’s enthusiasm to possess advanced technology solutions, eye-catching and stylish.
Not that those who decide and the resulting engineering has neglected fundamental aspects, such as the increase in yields of major powertrain components such as the power unit and the driveline, but everything has been revised favoring undoubtedly the most enjoyment possible in the light of new possibilities offered by the aforementioned technologies, rather than to save energy and reduce consumption.
If you think that concretely should be the reduction of the masses maintaining equal security, together with the promotion of the minimal power and the generalized search of the best efficiency to configure the most important goals, it is evident that it has been done very little in this direction, and perhaps only because in reality these goals are more bandied than really wanted.
One is tempted to say that you are traveling more and more powerful, more comfortable, in more suitable environments and that this is perhaps also been obtained without paying large duties to the energy additional consumption and pollution, but that the same effort could be otherwise promoted aimed to reducing them rather than not increase them.
MinimalPowertain AG has made of the low power, small masses, the high yields and minimal environmental impact the objectives of its business, a work philosophy that is committed to promoting everywhere; but in respect of its customers can not afford to snub the rational need to have complete, safe, and modern vehicles.
This is the reason why it was decided to promote integrative packages that meet every need, starting from the basic proposals designed to provide the fundamental capabilities at the highest level, to get to the top that modern technology makes it possible.
The sensors or transducers or actuators are devices that detect entities physical, chemical, or of the different nature, convert and transmit them anywhere there is a device that requires these inputs to manage or inform in the context of a logical system.
The technology of assisted pedaling (PAS) is a hybrid human-electric powertrain, much more complicated than what you believe, because it is characterized by the parameters of the sources very different and of the small size.
This is accomplished in accordance with the legal requirements by using more or less sophisticated sensor and logic of the management system.
The simplest one, typically employs the hall-type transducer (magnetic effect), shown in the left image, capable of detecting the presence and the angular speed of pedaling.
This minimal but effective solution, consists of two elements positioned frontally, of which the first made integral with the central movement has the shape of a disc with more magnets positioned circumferentially in the outer peripheral ring and the other, fixed to the frame, is made by a small receiver like a transistors.
Provides a signal to electrical voltage equal to about 4.4V.
In particular, each time the magnet in rotation approaches the receiver enters in its receiving volume, this transistor closes itself, sending a pulse of variable duration because function of the transit/permanence time of the magnet in said volume.
Therefore higher is the frequency of pedaling and more will be short but frequent these pulses, that the drive of the electric machine is able to read and transform into an electric voltage proportional, used to manage the motor’s speed via PWM technology.
The number of magnets has gradually increased over the years to reach the current 10 up to 12 with the aim to reduce the angle necessary to provide the input to start and stop of the motor (there are delays presetted as set up default), together to improve the proportional signal for the best smooth speed adjusting.
A sensor certainly more sophisticated and expensive is that capable of detecting the presence and value of the torque in static and dynamic conditions.
It has various embodiments and works by exploiting different phenomena such as the effect resistive, capacitive, piezoelectric, load cells, fiber optics etc.
Basically it detects and converts it into an appropriate electrical signal, the mechanical deformation (strain gauges or strain gage) or other phenomenon correlated and induced from the torque that produces it.
This signal is then handled as the previous.
The advantage of the torque sensor is to ensure input manageable even with stationary pedals, since pressing them however it gives them a force that turns into a torque due to the crankarm, with the sole exception of the upper and lower dead points.
Clearly this peculiarity assumes particular importance in the phases of starting and uphill, but is also essential if one wants to obtain information such as the torque produced, energy expenditure and the power produced in the action of pedaling, so as to manage refined software applications of the hybrid functionality and physical training programs, or to dose the muscular effort as a function of the biomechanical characteristics of the cyclist.
These objectives, together with the possibility of “false signals” in relation to departures of the electric motor unintended, species present in the projects with low sensitivity threshold, make it appropriate or necessary integrate the torque sensor with the angular speed sensor thus obtaining the result technologically optimal, although it must be said that the resulting correct and sophisticated management system logic involving always in this case the rider fatigue.
Multiple no-contact sensor, integrated with the bottom bracket.
Angular speed, and direction of rotation are measured via Hall effect while the torque via magneto-elastic effect.
In this latest version, with outer sleeve shaft, can actually detect, convert and transmit the overall effect of the left and right pedaling torque on the common shaft induced by the left and right pedal, in the range 0-100 Nm expandable to 300 Nm, recording up to 72 pulses per shaft revolution.
This set train information is sent to the electric machine electronic actioning that, on the basis of the assistance program chosen by the user (ECO. TOUR, SPORT, SPEED), manages the motor power by asking for electric accumulator.
In the previous version only the left torque can be managed.
This type of transducer can be also realized on the flange instead that exploiting the shaft position.
Other sensors used, relate to the actuators capable of detecting the presence of braking and sometimes even its type (slight – strong) and are used together with the drive of the electric machine to manage it in the functionality of kinetic energy recovery.
Often the modern powertrain , especially in the automotive field M1, uses many other sensors such as those for the positioning, for security, alarms etc; given the common use these devices do not deserve specific analysis even a general level.
The displays are visual interfaces that allow the user to view vehicle information on its gait, path and functionality and therefore include data, indicators and alarms as well as any devices necessary for the setting.
For Pedelec and Electric Bike, pedal assisted, Minimally Powertrain AG proposes two solutions of the high quality: a monochrome liquid crystal display fixed matrix and another with dot matrix typically similar to the modern touch screen devices, with optional the telephone ability for maximum functionality in a single device.
The choice of separate controls for the management of the display interface allows to obtain, for equal overall dimensions of the display, much larger sizes of screens for a better reading of the data and a greater ease of drive.
The transponder or transceivers are devices acts to exchange the input and output data via radio by acting in some cases as actuators on board the vehicle of predetermined logics.
Their use has gradually spread over time for various reasons such as the traceability and monitoring of self-propelled and its content in relation to the path and the instantaneous position, the acquisition and recording in continuous or discrete way of the data and information with the aim of act quickly in the face of exceptional events, as well as operate the controls on-board and from remote to make executive a specific management and/or data recording relating to the operation, usage or however important for some purpose.
Anti-theft functionality with activation of bollards devices such as flashing and sirens and / or systems for stop and block acting on the engine and / or its traditional powering or electricity, are now a reality in the traditional automotive as in the modern two-and three-wheelers, electric bike with pedal assistance included.
Opportunities less apparent and well-known but equally important because useful by other entities than the owner-user such as for example, the manufacturer, the seller, the insurer, who manages the after sales or technical assistance, enhance the value and importance that these transponders can be optional equipment appropriately integrated and positioned on board.